Tangram II Manual
October 27, 2010

Research Team



Name level period Institution
Adenilson Raniery S. Pontes MSc (1998-1999) (PUC/BR)
Adriane de Quevedo Cardozo MSc (1999-2002) (UFRJ/BR)
Ana Paula Couto Silva PhD (1999-2006) (UFRJ/BR)
Antonio Augusto de Aragão Rocha PhD (2001-) (UFRJ/BR)
Antonio Mauricio N. Tartarini MSc (1998-1999) (PUC-RJ/BR)
Bernado Calil Machado Netto MSc (2001-2004) (UFRJ/BR)
Bruno Cesar Barbosa Alves PhD (2009) (UFRJ/BR)
Bruno Felisberto Martins Ribeiro MSc (2001-2004) (UFRJ/BR)
Carlos F. de Brito MSc (1998-1999) (UFRJ/BR)
Carolina C. Le Brum de Vielmond MSc (2001-2007) (UFRJ/BR)
Daniel Ratton Figueiredo MSc (1998-1999) (UFRJ/BR)
Daniel Sadoc Menasche MSc (2000-2005) (UFRJ/BR)
David Silva Boechat MSc (2004-2007) (UFRJ/BR)
Denise Jorge de Oliveira undergrad. (1998-1999) (UFRJ/BR)
Edmundo Grune de Souza e Silva MSc (2002-2009) (UFRJ/BR)
Flavio Pimentel Duarte MSc (1999-2003) (UFRJ/BR)
Felipe Mendonça Alcure undergrad. (2000-2002) (UFRJ/BR)
Fernando Jorge Silveira Filho MSc (2000-2006) (UFRJ/BR)
Gaspare Giuliano Elias Bruno PhD (2009-) (UFRJ/BR)
Guilherme de Melo B. Domingues PhD (2009-) (UFRJ/BR)
Guilherme Dutra Gonzaga Jaime PhD (2001-) (UFRJ/BR)
Hugo Hidequi Costa Sato MSc (2002-2007) (UFRJ/BR)
Isabela Barreto Duncan MSc (2001-2006) (UFRJ/BR)
Joao Carlos Guedes PhD (1994) (UFRJ/BR)
Jorge Allyson Azevedo MSc (2000-) (UFRJ/BR)
Kelvin de Freitas Reinhardt MSc (1999-2002) (UFRJ/BR)
Luiz Rogerio G. de Carvalho MSc (1997-1998) (UFRJ/BR)
Magnos Martinello MSc (1998-2001) (UFRJ/BR)
Morganna Carmem Diniz PhD (1996-1997) (UFRJ/BR)
Raphael S. de Moraes undergrad. (1998) (UFRJ/BR)
Sidney Cunha de Lucena PhD (1997-2004) (UFRJ/BR)
Yuguang Wu PhD (1994) (UCLA/USA)

©1997-2005 LAND0.1/UFRJ0.2(Edmundo de Souza e Silva).

The copyright below applies to the free-of-charge distribution copies of
TANGRAM-II. Please send e-mail to support@land.ufrj.br concerning other types of licenses.

A non-exclusive, royalty-free license limited to use, copy, display, distribute without charging for a fee, and produce derivative works of ``TANGRAM-II'' and its documentation for not-for-profit purpose is granted to the party hereby receiving
``TANGRAM-II'' (``Recipient'') provided that the above copyright notice, the original author's names, and this permission notice appear in all copies made of ``TANGRAM-II'' and both the copyright notice and this license appear in supporting documentation. All other rights (including, but not limited to, the right to sell ``TANGRAM-II'', the right to sell or distribute derivative works of ``TANGRAM-II'', the right to distribute ``TANGRAM-II'' for a fee, and the right to include ``TANGRAM-II'' or derivative works of ``TANGRAM-II'' in a for-sale product or service) are reserved by LAND/UFRJ.

TANGRAM-II is distributed in the hope that it will be useful for education and research but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. TANGRAM-II is provided "as is" without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Special Permissions to Commercial Linux OS Distributors

Special permission is granted by the authors of TANGRAM-II to any commercial Linux distributor to redistribute TANGRAM-II in a for-sale Linux product provided that all the conditions below are met:

  1. The product is a Linux OS product (i.e., the product must either install or upgrade the Linux kernel).

  2. TANGRAM-II's copyright is included in the product.

  3. TANGRAM-II's copyright, authors information, and contact information are kept intact in the executable.

TANGRAM-II makes extensive use of TGIF (Tangram Graphic Interface Facility). TGIF has its own copyright.

TANGRAM-II is an environment for computer and communication system modeling and experimentation, developed for research and educational purposes. It provides a general user interface based on an object oriented paradigm and a variety of solvers to obtain the measures of interest. The environment also includes modules useful for computer network experimentation, and multimedia tools to aid in the modeling process and collaborative work.

The first version of TANGRAM was developed in Prolog [#!obj90!#] and a graphic interface called TGIF was also implemented and became later a full fledge independent general purpose sophisticated drawing tool [#!tgif!#]. From 1993 till 1994, several solvers were implemented, including those for transient analysis and for models with ``deterministic events''. The development of the TANGRAM-II environment started in 1997 [#!Tangram98!#].

The tool was completely re-designed and among the new features we mention [#!Tangram00!#]: a mathematical model generation implemented in C++; new constructs added to the language; new analytical solvers; a new user interface implemented in Java; TGIF constructs to facilitate the interaction with the new tool; an interactive simulator based on TANGRAM's paradigm. Recently, several modules have been implemented for computer network traffic modeling and analysis [#!tools2000-tmod!#]. Finally, a Whiteboard tool and a voice transmission tool are being incorporated in the environment [#!sbrc-wb!#,#!wb2000!#,#!glob99!#]. As soon as they are integrated with the environment, these tools will facilitate the development of models by groups at different locations.

The architecture of TANGRAM-II tool is shown in Figure [*].

Figure: The Overview of the Architecture.

If you want to know more information about our work visit our site at:

Many people contributed to TANGRAM-II, since this project began. Most people worked on several different parts of the tool. Some, though not directly involved with the tool, gave us invaluable advice. We want to say THANKS to everyone. In particular the project students were able to work together as a big family. It was a pleasure to see their enthusiasm. Below we acknowledge the people who contributed to the tool and indicate the main parts they were involved with.

The modeling paradigm was conceived by Dr. Steven Berson, Prof. Edmundo de Souza e Silva and Prof. Richard Muntz in 1989. This paradigm was adopted by the TANGRAM tool developed in 1989 and led by Richard Muntz.

The TANGRAM-II modeling environment was conceived by Prof. Edmundo de Souza e Silva and Prof. Rosa Maria Leão. Prof. Richard Muntz participated as a major consultant and in the discussions that led to the TANGRAM-II project. The current principal investigators are Edmundo de Souza e Silva and Rosa Maria Leão.

The drawing interface adopted by TANGRAM-II is the same as that conceived for TANGRAM (TGIF) and was developed by Dr. William Cheng. Several goodies were included in TGIF to support the needs of TANGRAM-II. Dr. Cheng implemented the modifications in TGIF and participated in the design discussions.

The first version of the mathematical model generator was implemented by Luiz Rogerio G. de Carvalho in 1997. This model was completely re-designed and re-implemented by Daniel Ratton Figueiredo and Carlos F. de Brito. The re-design included many new constructs that were added to the TANGRAM-II language, and reward-based measures. The hash function and AVL tree was implemented by Magnos Martinello.

The analytical solvers were designed/coded by: Yuguang Wu, João Carlos Guedes, Morganna Carmem Diniz, Edmundo de Souza e Silva, Carlos F. de Brito, João Abdalla and Ana Paula Couto da Silva. The simulator was designed by Daniel Ratton Figueiredo, and the FARIMA and FBM modules were implemented by Adenilson Raniery S. Pontes (under the guidance of Prof. Rosangela Coelho).

The module that calculates/plots measures of interest based on state probabilities was implemented by Antonio Mauricio N. Tartarini. The JAVA interfaces were designed and implemented by Kelvin de Freitas Reinhardt, Adriane de Quevedo Cardozo, Flavio Pimentel Duarte and Guilherme D. G. Jaime. They also have been debuggind and including several new features since 2000. The interfaces between the solvers and the JAVA screens was re-designed by Sidney Cunha de Lucena. The module used to visualize and permute matrices was designed and implemented by Fernando Jorge Silveira Filho and Daniel Sadoc Menasche.

The TANGRAM-II simulator (that includes support for rare event simulation) was designed and implemented by Daniel Ratton Figueiredo. Kelvin de Freitas Reinhardt implemented new features to support fluid simulation with the help of Bruno F. Martins Ribeiro. The TANGRAM-II parser has been improved and maintained by Jorge Allyson Azevedo, Guilherme D. G. Jaime and Flavio Pimentel Duarte. Within the simulator, the module that generates random numbers was rebuilt by Guilherme D. G. Jaime and Fernando Fernando Jorge Silveira Filho. They also have been debuggind and including several new features to the simulator since 2000.

The traffic modeling environment was implemented by Sidney Cunha de Lucena. The traffic generator was implemented by Daniel Ratton Figueiredo, Carlos F. de Brito and Magnos Martinello. Fabiano de Azevedo Portella participated in the implementation of its user interfaces as well as the program for calculating traffic measures from the Tangram-II traffic trace format. Magnos Martinello implemented the traffic generator interface to ATM switches. Antonio A. de Aragão Rocha implemented new traffic generation features and options that were added to the 2.1 version of Tangram-II. Hugo Sato worked on the graphical interfaces for these new features.

The first version of the Whiteboard Tool was designed and implemented by Edmundo de Souza e Silva, William Cheng, Renato Santana, Carlos F. de Brito, Magnos Martinello, Raphael S. de Moraes, Denise Jorge de Oliveira and Flavio Pimentel Duarte. The develop team of the second version of the Whiteboard Tool was: Edmundo de Souza e Silva, William Cheng, Jorge Allyson Azevedo, Milena Scanferla and Daniel Sadoc.

Participated in the implementation of the voice tool, VivaVoz: Daniel Ratton
Figueiredo, Flavio Pimentel Duarte. Carolina Vielmond and Edmundo Grune de Souza e Silva have implemented a graphical user interface for VivaVoz its voice mixer, a new trace colector, and are now the tool's current maintainers.

Ana Paula Couto da Silva was responsible for the examples and the TANGRAM-II tutorial, based on the contribution of many people, including those above. Daniel Figueiredo was the project leader till mid 1999, and he still acts as a consultant. Kelvin de Freitas Reinhardt, Adriane de Quevedo Cardozo, and Flavio Pimentel Duarte have been responsible for putting version 1.2-6 together and several subsequent versions. For version 2.1, Carolina Vielmond and Hugo Sato created the autotools scripts that enable the Tangram-II source code to be compiled on several Linux plattaforms.

We would like to thank our colleagues from the ALMADEM and COMIT projects: Prof. Berthier Ribeiro Neto, Dr. Jorge Moreira, Prof. Paulo Aguiar, Prof. Rosangela Coelho, Prof. Jose Augusto Suruagy Monteiro, Prof. Sergio Campos, Prof. Nelson Fonseca, Prof. Leana Golubchik and Prof. Don Towsley for the insightful discussions that led to many enhancements of TANGRAM-II.

We are in debt to Prof. Virgilio Almeida and Mr. Celso Deusdeti Costa from ProTem/CC (CNPq) who believed in the work of our group. CNPq (ProTem, Pronex, Free Software programs) and FAPERJ provided the main grants that supported our Laboratory.

Guilherme Dutra Gonzaga Jaime 2010-10-27